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What Causes High Arches? Symptoms & Diagnosing..

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Are you experiencing discomfort or pain in your feet? High arches could be the culprit. This condition, medically known as pes cavus, is characterized by an abnormally high arch in the foot, causing imbalances in weight distribution and potentially leading to various symptoms. In this article, we will explore the causes of high arches and the symptoms associated with this condition. High arches can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medical conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, as well as hereditary factors. They can also develop as a result of nerve damage or trauma to the foot. Regardless of the cause, high arches can lead to symptoms such as pain, instability, difficulty finding shoes that fit properly, and an increased risk of foot conditions like plantar fasciitis and bunions. Understanding the causes and symptoms of high arches is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into these topics, explore potential treatment options, and provide tips for managing high arches to alleviate pain and improve overall foot health. Stay tuned to learn more about this common foot condition and how it can be effectively addressed.

Anatomy Of The Foot And Arch

Our feet, though often underestimated, are marvels of engineering. Understanding their intricate anatomy, particularly the arch system, sheds light on how they distribute weight and propel us forward. The foot is comprised of 26 bones, categorized into three main sections: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.


The magic of the arch lies within the midfoot. Here, the tarsal bones – a collection of seven interlocking small bones – create a remarkable curved structure. This isn't just a single arch, but a network of two longitudinal arches (medial and lateral) and a single transverse arch. The medial longitudinal arch, often referred to as the main arch, runs along the inner side of the foot and is the most prominent. The lateral arch, on the outer side, is smaller but equally important for stability. Together, these longitudinal arches distribute our body weight evenly across the foot, absorbing shock and providing spring during activities like walking and running. The transverse arch, located across the ball of the foot, helps maintain forefoot stability and proper toe alignment.

Causes Of High Arches

High arches, while not necessarily a cause for concern themselves, can sometimes lead to discomfort or pain. But what exactly causes some people to have a more pronounced arch than others? Here, we delve into the potential culprits behind this interesting foot structure.


Genetics Plays a Leading Role: The single biggest factor influencing arch height is heredity. If your parents or close relatives have high arches, you're more likely to inherit the same characteristic. This is because genes determine the shape and size of your bones, ligaments, and tendons, which all play a role in arch formation.


Neuromuscular Issues Can Be a Factor: In some cases, high arches can be a symptom of an underlying neurological condition. Conditions like Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, cerebral palsy, or spina bifida can affect nerve and muscle function, impacting how the foot develops and functions. If you have high arches alongside other neurological symptoms like muscle weakness or numbness, it's important to consult a doctor to rule out any underlying conditions.


Tight Calf Muscles Can Contribute: Tight calf muscles can also play a role in high arches. The calf muscles connect to the heel bone (calcaneus) through the Achilles tendon, and when these muscles are tight, they can pull the heel up, indirectly increasing the arch height. This can lead to imbalances and potential pain in the feet, ankles, and even knees.


Understanding the potential causes of high arches can help you address any underlying issues and manage any discomfort that may arise. If you're concerned about your arch height or experience pain, consulting a podiatrist or healthcare professional is always recommended. They can assess your foot structure, gait, and any potential contributing factors to determine the best course of action for keeping your feet healthy and happy.

High Arches

Common Symptoms Of High Arches

High arches, also known as cavus foot, might not always cause problems. But for some people, the extra height can lead to a cascade of uncomfortable sensations. Here are some of the tell-tale signs that your arches might be a little too ambitious:


Foot Pain and Discomfort: The most common symptom is foot pain, especially in the forefoot and heel. This can occur due to a lack of shock absorption from the high arches. Activities like walking, running, or standing for extended periods can exacerbate the pain as the pressure isn't distributed evenly across the foot. Pain can also manifest in the toes, with some people experiencing cramping or a burning sensation.


Balance and Instability: High arches can affect your balance and stability. The natural arch helps distribute weight and provides a stable base for movement. Without this support, your foot might roll inward excessively (overpronation) when walking or running. This can lead to ankle instability, increasing the risk of sprains and falls. You might also notice a feeling of your foot "tipping" outward, further impacting balance.

Diagnosing High Arches

While high arches might announce their presence with foot pain or wobbly ankles, diagnosing them is usually a straightforward process. Here's what you can expect during a doctor's visit:


The Tell-Tale "Wet Test": A simple yet effective method often takes center stage. Your doctor might ask you to wet your foot and step on a piece of paper. If the imprint shows only your heel and the balls of your feet with minimal contact in the midfoot area, it's a strong indicator of high arches. In contrast, a low arch would leave a nearly complete footprint.


Physical Examination and Gait Analysis: The doctor will likely examine your feet for any signs of swelling, redness, or tenderness. They'll also assess your range of motion in your ankles and toes. Observing your gait, how you walk and stand, can reveal any imbalances or overpronation caused by high arches.


Imaging tests like X-rays are usually not necessary for diagnosing high arches themselves. However, in some cases, if there's a concern about an underlying condition causing the high arches or if you're experiencing significant pain, an X-ray might be used to rule out any bone abnormalities.

Potential Complications Of High Arches

While high arches might not seem like a major concern, in some cases, they can lead to complications that extend beyond foot discomfort. Here's a glimpse into some potential consequences of having a more elevated arch:


Domino Effect on Your Joints: The increased stress on the forefoot and heel caused by high arches can have a ripple effect throughout your lower body. The misalignment can lead to pain in your knees, hips, and even lower back as your body tries to compensate for the uneven weight distribution. This can be particularly problematic for people who participate in activities that put a lot of stress on their joints, like running or jumping.


Hammertoes and Other Foot Deformities: The constant pressure on the toes due to a lack of support from the arch can lead to deformities like hammertoes. In this condition, the middle joint of the toe bends permanently, creating a claw-like appearance. This can not only be unsightly but also cause pain and difficulty wearing shoes. Other potential complications include calluses, corns, and bunions, all stemming from the altered mechanics of the foot caused by high arches.

Exercises And Stretches For High Arches

High arches, while not always detrimental, can sometimes lead to discomfort and pain. Thankfully, incorporating targeted exercises and stretches into your routine can help improve flexibility, strengthen supporting muscles, and reduce stress on your arches. Here are a few key exercises to consider:


Calf Raises: These classic calf strengtheners come with a twist for high arches. Start with seated calf raises, focusing on slowly lowering your heels down as far as possible before raising them back up. This extended range of motion helps stretch the tight calf muscles that can contribute to high arches. You can progress to single-leg calf raises with a focus on controlled movement and a full range of motion.


Plantar Fascia Stretch: This stretch targets the connective tissue on the sole of your foot. Sit with a towel looped around the ball of one foot. Gently pull the toes back towards you using the towel, feeling a stretch along the arch. Hold for 30 seconds and repeat on the other side.


Marble Pick-Up: This exercise improves toe strength and flexibility. Scatter marbles on the floor and try picking them up using only your toes. This will engage the smaller muscles in your foot and help improve overall arch function.


Remember, consistency is key! Aim to perform these exercises and stretches a few times a day for optimal results. It's also important to listen to your body and avoid any exercise that causes pain. If you're unsure about proper form, consult a physical therapist who can create a personalized program tailored to your specific needs.

Bilt Labs Custom Orthotics

High arches, while a unique foot structure, can sometimes lead to a cascade of discomfort. From foot pain and instability to potential complications in other joints, having extra arch can put a strain on your entire body. But don't despair! Bilt Labs custom orthotics can be a game-changer for those with high arches, offering targeted support and helping you move with greater comfort and confidence.


Precise Arch Support: Unlike generic insoles with limited arch options, Bilt Labs orthotics are crafted specifically for your unique feet. Through a pressure analysis and gait evaluation, they pinpoint the exact level of arch support you need. This personalized approach ensures your arches are properly cradled, promoting better alignment and reducing stress on the entire foot. By providing the right amount of lift and support, Bilt Labs orthotics can significantly alleviate pain in the forefoot and heel, common trouble spots for those with high arches.


Improved Biomechanics and Stability: High arches can lead to overpronation, where your foot rolls inward excessively when walking or running. This misalignment can cause a domino effect of problems throughout your body. Bilt Labs orthotics address overpronation by providing targeted support and stability. They help keep your foot in a more neutral position, promoting proper biomechanics during movement. This reduces stress on your joints, minimizing the risk of pain in your knees, hips, and even lower back.


Long-Lasting Comfort and Pain Relief: Bilt Labs orthotics are crafted with high-quality, shock-absorbing materials designed for long-lasting comfort. They help distribute pressure more evenly across your foot, reducing the strain on overworked areas and preventing pain from developing. Whether you're walking, running, or simply standing for extended periods, Bilt Labs orthotics can provide the support and comfort you need to keep moving pain-free.


Multiple Options for Your Needs: Bilt Labs offers a variety of custom orthotics designed for different activity levels. Whether you prioritize maximum support for high-impact activities or everyday comfort, there's an option to match your lifestyle. By incorporating Bilt Labs custom orthotics into your foot care routine, you can experience significant relief from the challenges of high arches, allowing you to move with greater confidence and enjoy your activities pain-free.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, while high arches themselves aren't necessarily detrimental, understanding the potential causes, from genetics to tight calf muscles, empowers you to take preventative measures and address any discomfort. If you suspect you have high arches and experience pain, don't hesitate to consult a podiatrist for a diagnosis and personalized treatment plan. By incorporating exercises, stretches, and potentially even custom orthotics, you can manage high arches and keep your feet happy and healthy, ready to take you wherever life's journey leads. Take our free quiz today to find out which orthotic type is best for your feet.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is intended for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always consult with a qualified healthcare professional before making any decisions about your health. If you have any questions about your health or are experiencing any medical problems, please contact your doctor or other healthcare provider immediately. Do not delay seeking medical attention based on the information provided in this article.